Earth Matters Around the Web : Trouble in Paradise

Reading through the eco-news this week I came across two articles that had similar themes. The first article is titled “Solar Customers in Hawaii get Burned” and details how people switching to solar power in the island state are struggling. Apparently, while it seems to make the most sense that Hawaiians would take advantage of one of their most abundant resources, the islands presently lack the infrastructure to accommodate it. According to the article, the inability to regulate the amount of electricity that solar power generates poses a threat to Hawaii’s grids. What happens then is that people switching to solar power end up with solar panels they are paying for but cannot use (until the infrastructure is put in place) and have to continue paying for their electricity bills as well. The second article is titled “A Struggle to Balance Wind Energy with Wildlife”. This article details the current trouble in the United States with wind energy, for while the massive turbines harness a renewable energy source, they also stand in the path of many species of migratory boards. Numerous birds have apparently been killed by the turbines, including species of eagles that were taken off the endangered species list only a few years ago. 

The problem that is illustrated by both of these articles is that while human beings have finally started to realize that finding renewable sources of energy is essential and imperative, the technology is still in its infancy. Indeed, while we are now grasping at the technology that will hopefully spare our environment, we are still far from perfecting it or predicting it. Integrating these new technologies into our lives is not going to be effortless and neither is it going to happen overnight.

The problems we are having with adapting these technologies to our lives also demonstrate a lack of foresight, a seemingly fundamental human flaw. We would not be in a scramble for new energy technologies if we had not so poorly anticipated the side effects and hazards of the old ones, namely fossil fuels. For that matter, we also turned, and many of us continue to turn, a blind eye to the side effects and hazards of our current energy technologies when we became aware of their side affects and hazards. So, while the development of new energy technologies does demonstrate some collective learning, its slow realization and its faulty employment reveals that we are still prone to the same kind of mistakes we have always made. So while we totter towards answers to our biggest environmental problems, let us not forget that there are some fundamentally human problems that also need attention,

Earth Matters Around the Web : The Geography of Nelson Mandela

The Earth Matter’s exhibition consists of five sections that take a symbolic journey through the world as interpreted by African artists. The fourth section in the show is titled “Strategies of the Surface”, which includes works focusing on the landscape and authored by artists from Jacobus Pierneef to Otobong Nkanga and IngridMwangiRobertHutter. Using these two works as examples, the latter work is an apartheid era landscape painting that, many contend, paints a colonial picture of South Africa, devoid of the indigenous inhabitants that challenged colonial claims to the land. The work by Nkanga describes geography from the detached, inhumane point of view of military strategy, conflict, and claim. The work by IngridMwangiRobertHutter focuses on land, belonging, and borders.

In these many interpretations, the emphasis is on the relationship between the land and people, race, and culture. With the passing of Nelson Mandela, it is a an apt opportunity to remind the world that much of the late freedom fighter’s work was about a similar geography, the landscape of people. This landscape is something that Mandela changed greatly, erasing the imaginary lines that separated and imprisoned people. Today, while disparate communities still exist, gone are the so called “homelands” which divided South Africa according to the edicts of racial segregation. Indeed, Mandela’s impact on South Africa’s geography is one of his greatest legacies.

Humans, however, are not the only species affected by geography. In a recent article by National Geographic Editor in Chief Chris Johns, for example, the author tells about his meeting with Mandela and the Peace Park project in Africa. Peace Parks are transnational reserve areas that allow wildlife to move freely across the continent. As Johns notes, the idea of Peace Parks—reserves that transcend political borders, enabling animals and people to move freely across a single ecological unit—resonated with Mandela. This article, which also sheds light on Mandela’s love of nature and his yearning for it during his imprisonment, captures a nuance of Mandela and his legacy that might be overlooked in many of the popular articles that have flooded the internet. The article can be found at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/12/131205-mandela-south-africa-apartheid-appreciation/ and more information on the Peace Parks project can be found at http://www.peaceparks.org/.

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Jacob Hendrik Pierneef, 1886–1957, South Africa

South West African Mountains, 1944, Oil on canvas

Private collection, courtesy of Bonhams

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Otobong Nkanga, b. 1974, Nigeria

Limits of Mapping, 2010, Wood, acrylic paint, metal

Untitled-1static drift-germany

IngridMwangiRobertHutter, b. 1975, Kenya

Static Drift, 2001, Chromogenic prints on aluminum

Collection of Heather and Tony Podesta, Falls Church, Virginia

Guest Voices : Georgina Owen

In March 2013, The National Museum of African Art built a collaboration with the Environmental Film Festival in the Nation’s Capital that was centered on the Earth Matter’s exhibition. This collaboration resulted in an Earth Matters’ themed segment in this year’s annual festival. Also born from that collaboration is this week’s guest post, which comes from Georgina Owen, the festival’s Associate Director.

 

The Environmental Film Festival collaboration with Earth Matters

 

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In the summer of 2012 the Environmental Film Festival in the Nation’s Capital was invited to collaborate with Earth Matters to develop a series of film programs as part of the 2013 festival that would herald the opening of Earth Matters at the Museum of African Art.  Through long-time EFF partner Jeffrey Stine, Chair and Curator in the Division of Medicine and Science at the American History Museum, who represented the NMAH on the Earth Matters Project Team, we were introduced to Karen Milbourne and Anthony Stellaccio.    As they described the exhibition I was struck with the amazing complexity of the exhibition and yet the elemental importance of its message – the significance of the relationship between humans and the earth we stand on.

The result of our programming was a rich and varied group of films that formed a major theme running through our 2013 festival.  The films were presented in collaboration with four different Smithsonian units and two external partners.  The films ranged from documentaries on mud masons in Mali, on the effects of climate change and drought on onion farmers in Niger, to an inspiring portrait film on Jane Goodall, and to a Gabonese produced family adventure film involving lions and stolen tribal artifacts.  Special guest speakers included Claudine André, who spoke about her work rescuing and rehabilitating orphaned bonobos in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Tony Huston, who presented classic films by his father, legendary film director John Huston, exploring the influence that filming on location in various parts of Africa had on his work.   The last film in our series was an intimate portrait of El Anatsui, one of the artists invited to create a land art piece in the Smithsonian Gardens for the Earth Matters exhibit.

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Fold Crumple Crush: The Art of El Anatsui

Credit: Icarus Films

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For the Best and For the Onion

Credit: Icarus Films

The success of our Earth Matters film series was a natural precursor to a new pan-Smithsonian collaboration for our 2014 festival, which will take place March 18 through 30.  This year we will be working with the Smithsonian Grand Challenges Consortia on “Living in the Anthropocene: The Age of Humans.”  Films we are planning to include are The Last Call, that revisits one of the most controversial environmental books of all time, The Limits To Growth, and redelivers its message that growth must be responsibly managed to avoid a global crisis.  We will also show Extreme Realities, narrated by Matt Damon, a new episode of “Journey to Planet Earth,” that explores the links between climate change, extreme weather and national security.  Other films will examine how man has reshaped the natural world – our landscapes, our rivers, our oceans, our atmosphere – even outer space.  The relationship between humans and the earth we stand on matters in unprecedented ways.

Georgina Owen
Associate Director
Environmental Film Festival in the Nation’s Capital

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Sand Fishers

Credit: Sand Fishers

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The Future of Mud: A Tale of Houses and Lives in Djenne

Credit: Icarus Films

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The King’s Necklace

Credit: The King’s Necklace

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The African Queen

Earth Matters Around the Web : 2,370 Irreplaceable Places

Last Wednesday, scientists released a list of 2,370 “irreplaceable places.” The purpose of this list is to prioritize habitats essential to the  rare wildlife, to develop protective measures for these habitats, to make the management of those habitats more efficient, and to curb extinction. A full list of the 2, 370 locations is available at the following link: http://irreplaceability.cefe.cnrs.fr/search?

Out of the 2,370 entries, there are hundreds in Africa – a reminder of the continents many natural wonders and its remarkable wildlife. However, the need for protection is also a reminder of the sever fragility of Africa’s ecosystems and the many threats that it faces. From mining to poaching, Africa has many problems to solve before it can achieve environmental sustainability. One of the biggest problems Africa faces is poverty. Dr. Emeka Polycarp Amechi at the University of Lagos in Nigeria makes this point explicitly in a recent essay entitled LINKING ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN AFRICA: AN ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL LEGAL RESPONSES TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. In fact, in the opening of the essay Polycarp states that the “New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD- EAP) identifies poverty as the main cause and consequence of man-made environmental degradation and resource depletion in Africa.” Polycarp also quickly points out that while poverty breeds environmental degradation, environmental degradations, in turn, breeds more poverty, creating a viscous cycle.

For proof of the links between poverty and environmental degradation, one need look no further than the stunning images of the Agbogbloshie dump site outside of Accra, in Ghana. This site, a dump for electronic waste from developed nations, has become a home for the impoverished, who rummage through and burn the “e-waste” to pilfer materials that can be sold and recycled. One of the most poignant images of the Agbogbloshie dump site was made by Nyaba Leon Ouedraogo and is featured in the Earth Matters exhibition at the National Museum of African Art. Of course, there are many images of many such sites and there are many more sites that are yet undocumented. But the juxtaposition of this powerful image of poverty and environmental degradation and the serene images of Africa’s grandest nature belong together, for they are inextricably linked.

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Nyaba Leon Ouedraogo

b. 1978, Burkina Faso

Untitled, from the series The Hell of Copper

2008 (2013 exhibition print)

Chromogenic print

 

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Tsavo East National Park, Kenya